Us Uae 123 Agreement
The Trump administration presented 123 new agreements with Mexico and the United Kingdom to Congress in May 2018. The United Kingdom was previously covered by the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Agreement 123, but after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union, the bilateral agreement between the United States and the EU will enter into force. Japan`s agreement has technically expired in 2018, but the terms of the extension stipulate that the agreement remains in force until it is denounced by a party. The term “gold standard” was coined at the end of the George W. Bush administration, when the agreement between the United States and the United Arab Emirates was signed in January 2009, and it was declared a new standard for nuclear cooperation agreements, although several subsequent agreements did not maintain the complementary standard under the Obama administration. A 2011 letter from the Obama administration to Capitol Hill abandoned a one-time approach to 123 agreements and advocated a case-by-case approach in future negotiations. (See ACT, March 2012). The Trump administration has made its position on the gold standard even less clear. This has been particularly common in the ongoing negotiations on an agreement with Saudi Arabia 123. In addition, the United Arab Emirates has agreed to ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency`s standard additional protocol. The additional protocol aims to provide a more complete picture of a state`s nuclear and nuclear activities, including related imports and exports, and to significantly expand IAEA inspection authorities. In recent years, the United States has not negotiated a 123 agreement with a state that had not signed an additional protocol. The Trump administration began formal negotiations for a 123-nation deal with Saudi Arabia in February 2018, although negotiations have not been completed since 2012.
The negotiations are led by Energy Minister Rick Perry. Although some officials, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, have stated that the Government of Saudi Arabia is pressing to commit to waiting for nuclear fuel capacity and to adopt the IAEA Additional Protocol, reports suggest that Saudi Arabia has opposed these restrictions. Fears of nuclear cooperation with Saudi Arabia grew after Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said last year that Saudi Arabia would develop nuclear weapons if Iran did, and after the assassination of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi in October 2018. 123 Agreement: A “Agreement 123” refers to Section 123 of the 1954 U.S. Atomic Energy Act, which will establish the legal framework for peaceful trade in nuclear energy between the United Arab Emirates and the United States. In the United States, there are more than 20 such agreements, including with Egypt and Morocco. The Trump administration is currently negotiating a 123 deal with Saudi Arabia. The next agreement, which expires without conditions of renewal (which could trigger a simpler automatic extension without the agreement being renegotiated or resuscrate to Congress), will be concluded with Egypt in December 2021. The agreement signed today reflects the political commitments of the United Arab Emirates and meets or exceeds all safeguards and control requirements under Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act.
Several international experts have described the UAE programme as a “gold standard” approach to the development of civil nuclear energy. After the signing, the executive passes the agreement to the U.S. Congress for consideration. Nevertheless, some members of Congress reject the agreement and point to the UAE`s poor human rights record, the UAE`s trade relations with Iran and its lax export control legislation.