Trips Agreement Article 27
Subject to paragraph 1 of Article 37, members consider that the following acts are considered illegal if they are carried out without the permission of the right holder: 9) the importation, sale or distribution of a protected layout design, an integrated circuit in which a protected layout design is incorporated or an article containing such an integrated circuit , only to the extent that it continues to contain an illegitimately reproduced layout design. This argument has been used by some opponents of software patents to assert that software patents are not authorized by the TRIPS agreement.  TRIPS manuals do not see any conflict, z.B. notes Correa-Yusuf that software patents complement copyright because copyright does not protect the underlying ideas. 1. Notwithstanding Article 36, no member considers it illegal to perform any of the acts covered in this article concerning an integrated circuit containing an illegally reproduced layout design or an object containing such an integrated circuit when the person performing or ordering such acts, when acquiring the integrated circuit or an item containing such an integrated circuit , had no reasonable reason to know that it installed a layout design reproduced illegitimately. Members anticipate that after that person has been sufficiently informed that the design of the layout has been reproduced illegally, that person may perform one of the acts relating to the stock used or ordered before that date, but must pay the right holder an amount corresponding to an appropriate licence, as it should be paid under a freely negotiated license for such a layout design. There has been no procedure for resolving software patent disputes. Its relevance to patentability in areas such as computer-implemented business methods, computer science and software information technology remains uncertain, as the TRIPS agreement is interpreted as all legal texts . 1.
Members require a patent applicant to disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete to allow the invention to be executed by a tradesman and may require the applicant to indicate the best way to execute the invention known to the inventor on the date of filing or, if priority is claimed. , on the priority date of the application. 3. Evidence to the contrary takes into account the defendants` legitimate interests in protecting their manufacturing and business secrets. (l) Where such use is permitted to authorize the use of a patent (of the second patent) that cannot be used without a violation of another patent (of the first), the following additional conditions apply: it is possible to conduct a judicial review of a decision to revoke or forfeit a patent. . The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in particular Article 27 is sometimes mentioned in the political debate on the international legal framework for software patentability and whether computer-based software and inventions should be considered a technological domain. (k) members are not required to apply the conditions in paragraphs (b) and (f) where such use is likely to remedy a practice deemed anti-competitive following a judicial or administrative procedure. The need to correct anti-competitive behaviour can be taken into account when determining the amount of remuneration in such cases.